General Adult Description: Adult Eastern Tiger Salamanders can display variable coloration and patterning which makes discerning this species from the Western Tiger Salamander extremely difficult. Typically, adults have a dark brown or black background color with small, yellow-brown marks scattered along the body (Western Tiger Salamanders typically have large, bold yellow bars on a black background). As adults, these salamanders are terrestrial.
General Larval Description: Larval tiger salamanders are typically yellowish-brown in coloration with little to no visible markings and have three pairs of external, feather-like gills used for respiration. As individuals age and begin metamorphosis, these external gills begin to shrink in size and markings and patterns begin to develop on the body. Additionally, the tail is enlarged with a thin, membranous fin extending from the tail musculature to aid in swimming. As larvae, they are often called a “mudpuppy” or “waterdog” and may be superficially similar to the Common Mudpuppy (a much different salamander that is permanently aquatic). Larval tiger salamanders can be discerned from the Common Mudpuppy by the presence of five digits on the hind leg (versus only four).
Behavior: Adult salamanders are infrequently encountered as most adult movement occurs in the early spring while they are moving to and from breeding habitats (fishless ponds, stock dams) in during and shortly after heavy rains. Salamanders are typically nocturnal when they emerge from shelter to feed on invertebrates.
Reproduction: Adult females lay eggs in small clusters typically attached to aquatic vegetation and woody debris. Oviposition typically occurs in fishless ponds. Breeding typically occurs in the early spring, and the timing is largely determined by temperature and rainfall events.
Habitat: Eastern Tiger Salamanders use a wide range of habitats including woodlands and prairie habitats. Typically, these habitats are relatively close to wetlands, lakes, and cattle ponds where breeding occurs.
Species Range: Eastern Tiger Salamanders occupy a large area east of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, throughout the Ohio River drainage, and along the Atlantic Coast from Florida north to New York. Additionally, many scattered disjunct populations exist which are seemingly isolated from other populations.
South Dakota Range: The exact range of this species is poorly understood in South Dakota. Generally, it is believed to occupy the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Future studies should examine the boundaries between Eastern and Western Tiger Salamanders in the state.
South Dakota Status: This species is not listed by South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks.
Account written by Drew R. Davis and Lanian M. Florke